For an excellent analysis of the benefits, pitfalls and possibilities of cross-group mentoring, see Martinez-Cola (2020).
Cihangir et al. 2014; Drury & Kaiser 2014.
Johnson and Heckman 2016.
Research finds that men speak more and make more frequent contributions in formal work settings, including meetings. Women are frequently interrupted, talked over, shut down or ignored. Men are more likely than women to interrupt others and significantly more likely to interrupt women than other men (Hancock & Rubin 2014; Karpowitz & Mendelberg 2014).
Karpowitz & Mendelberg 2014.
Scholars refer to “benevolent sexism” as behaviors that aim to “protect” women but actually limit their opportunity. These include avoiding developing close relationships with women colleagues, chivalrous or protective behaviors that limit women’s assignments, placing women (or mothers) on a pedestal, and telling women they are “good girls” or calling them belittling names such as “pumpkin” or “honey” (Glick 2013).
However, avoid asking or expecting women (especially women of color) colleagues to do office “housework”, including taking notes, planning parties, or hosting or organizing social events on their own (Tulshyan 2018).
The 2020 survey included questions from the 2010 WLU survey and the 2018 ABA national survey. To access the questions from the national survey, the research team signed a non-disclosure agreement prohibiting our sharing specific questions with others outside of the research team. Therefore, we do not include specific survey questions here.